Milestones in Molecular Biology:

Nobel Laurates Badge

Since its inauguration in 1901, the Nobel Prize has been awarded to individuals, teams and organizations for outstanding achievements in the fields of chemistry, physiology or medicine, physics, literature, economics and peace. As indicated by Alfred Nobel in his will, the Nobel Prize is established to recognize those who have "conferred the greatest benefit to mankind".

It is our great honor to have published the works more than 490 Nobel Laureates. This prestigious accolade conferred on our authors reaffirms Wiley's commitment to publishing quality content for the benefit of the research and scholarly communities. http://as.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section

This is just a list of Nobel laureates who have contributed to the scientific knowledge of Biology, Biophysics and Biochemistry.  But there are thousands of scientists in all branches of science over the century and those who have contributed to the science of Biology; especially Molecular Biology and Gene Engineering are at pinnacle of biology.  We should know without proper knowledge of physics, chemistry and mathematics molecular biology would not have developed to this state of prominence.  The other contributors name has been sited elsewhere; the list is not complete; yet trying to incorporate names as many as possible with respect to Molecular Cell Biology.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016

Yoshinori Ohsumi

"for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015

William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura

 

Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar ; The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 has been awarded jointly; for the mechanistic studies of DNA repair; "for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites"

 
Youyou Tu; "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof; "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

2013: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: James E.Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Sudhof- for their work on regulation of vesicular traffic- a transport system in cells.

            2012: Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine and or Chemistry. Robert J. Leftkowitz 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry;  Brain Kolbika, Chemistry-for GPCR, G-protein coupled Receptor;               John B. Gurdon and Shine Yamanaka; Cells and sensibility; Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine: - for their work on embryonic cells; mature cells can be reprogrammed.

 

2011   Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann, for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity, and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity.

2011 Daniel Shechtman (Israel) in chemistry awarded Nobel Prize, for his discovery of the structure of quasi-crystals. Shechtman first created quasi-crystals by rapidly cooling molten metals, such as aluminum and manganese, by squirting the mixture onto a cool surface. Then, he observed that the new crystal was made up of perfectly ordered, non-repeating units; mathematics and art: the golden ratio. So far, 102 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry have been awarded since 1901. It was not awarded on eight occasions: in 1916, 1917, 1919, 924, 1933, 1940, 1941 and 1942.

2010    Robert G. Edwards "for the development of in vitro fertilization".

2010  Richard F Heck, and Japanese scientists, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki. They were awarded the prize for the work they have done in the field of palladium catalyzed coupling reactions in organic synthesis.

 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 · Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi . Paul Berg. "for their fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA" 

 

2009  Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider, Jack W. Szostak for for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase".

2009 chemistry: VENKATRAMAN RAMAKRISHNAN, THOMAS A. STEITZ, and ADA E. YONATH for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome

2008    Harald zur Hausen, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Luc Montagnier; for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer",the other half jointly to Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus".

2008 in chemistry; OSAMU SHIMOMURA, MARTIN CHALFIE, and ROGER Y TSIEN; for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP

2007 Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans, Oliver Smithies for "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells".

2007: Gerhard Ertl, "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces."

2006 Andrew Z. Fire, Craig C. Mello; for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

2006 Chemistry; ROGER D. KORNBERG for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription

2005  Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

2005: Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock, "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis."

2004; Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

2004 in chemistry;

The prize is being awarded jointly to:

AAAVRAM HERSHKO , and IRWIN ROSE for the discovery of ubiquitin RON CIECHANOVER, itin-mediated protein degradation.

2003  Paul C. Lauterbur, Sir Peter Mansfield for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

2003 in Chemistry;

The prize is being chemistry for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes  with one half of the prize to: PETER AGRE, for the discovery of water channels ;and the other half of the prize to: RODERICK MACKINNON for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

 

2002 Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston for "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'".

2002 Chemistry;

for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules  with one half jointly to:

JOHN B. FENN, and KOICHI TANAKA, for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules and the other half to:

KURT WÜTHRICH for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution.

 

2001 Leland H. Hartwell, UK; Tim Hunt, Sir Paul M. Nurse and Sydney brenner for  their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle and"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle".

2000  Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel;

for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system".


1999 Günter Blobel (Germany) US
."for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.

1998 Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad;US, "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the    cardiovascular system"

1997 Stanley B. Prusiner US,"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection
1997 Chemistry;

The prize was divided, one half being awarded jointly to:

PAUL D. BOYER and JOHN E. WALKER for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

and with one half to:

JENS C. SKOU for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase


1996 Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel sw
, for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[95

1995 Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus; US,FRG,US"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development

1994 Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell;US,
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

1993 Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. SharpUK,US; "for their discoveries of split genes
1993  Chemistry;

The prize was awarded for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry equally between:

KARY B. MULLIS; for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

and

MICHAEL SMITH for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies.


1992 Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs;sw,US;
  "for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism

1991 Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann;FRG; for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

1990 Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas; US
; "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

1989 J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus;US
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes
1989  Chemistry;

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIDNEY ALTMAN and THOMAS R. CECH for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA


1988 Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings; Uk,US; "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment
1988 chemistry;

The prize was awarded jointly to:

JOHANN DEISENHOFER , ROBERT HUBER and HARTMUT MICHEL for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre


1987 Susumu Tonegawa;JP; "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

1986 Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini; US, Italy, US; "for their discoveries of growth factors.

1985 Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein;US; "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism

1984 Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein;Denmark,FRG,Argentina, and UK; "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

1983 Barbara McClintock;US; for her discovery of mobile genetic elements

1982 Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane; SW,SW,UK"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"
1982  Chemistry;

SIR AARON KLUG for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes


1981 Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel; Sweeden, US "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system

1980 Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. Snell; Venezeula,US,US;"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[79
1980 in chemistry;

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

PAUL BERG for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA

and the other half jointly to:

WALTER GILBERT and FREDERICK SANGER for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids.


1979 Allan M. Cormack, Godfrey N. Hounsfield; us,uk; "for the development of computer assisted tomography

1978 Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith;SW.US.US: "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics
1978 chemistry

PETER D. MITCHELL for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.


1977 Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow;US,US; "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones

1976 Baruch S. Blumberg, D. Carleton Gajdusek;US,US;  for their discovery of peptide hormome production of brain.

1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard M. Temin; US,Italy,US; "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"
1975 chemistry

The prize was divided equally between:

SIR JOHN WARCUP CORNFORTH for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

and

VLADIMIR PRELOG for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions


1974 Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George E. Palade;  "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[73

1973 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen;FRG, Austria,UK; "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patter

1972 Gerald M. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter; US,UK; "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
1972 Chemistry;

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

CHRISTIAN B. ANFINSEN for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active confirmation

and the other half jointly to:

STANFORD MOORE and WILLIAM H. STEIN for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule


1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.US; "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones,

1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod;US,SW,UK; "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivati

1970 Chemistry;

LUIS F. LELOIR for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.



1969 Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador  E. Luria; US; "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses

1968 Robert W. Holley, H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg; US, India, US respectively; "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis

1967 Ragnar Granit, Haldan K. Hartline, George Wald;SW,US,US; for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye

1966 Peyton Rous, Charles B. Huggins; US,US;" for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses; for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer

1965 François Jacob, André Lwoff, Jacques Monod;FR,FR; for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis

1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen; US, FRG;"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism

1963 Sir John Eccles, Alan L. Hodgkin, Andrew F. Huxley;UK; "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

1962 Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Hugh FrederickWilkins; Uk, US, and UK; "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material

1962 Chemistry; The prize was divided equally between:

MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ and SIR JOHN COWDERY KENDREW for their studies of the structures of globular proteins.


1961 Georg von Békésy; US;"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea
1961 Chemistry;

MELVIN CALVIN for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants


1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Medawar; Australia, UK; "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance

1959 Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg; US, Spain, US; "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid

1958 George Beadle, Edward Tatum, Joshua Lederberg; US,US;"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events; "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria
1958 Chemistry;

FREDERICK SANGER for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin.


1957 Daniel Bovet; Italy;"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles
1957 Chemistry;

LORD ALEXANDER R. TODD for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.


1956 André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards; US, FRG, US; "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"[
1956 Chemistry;

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR CYRIL NORMAN HINSHELWOOD and NIKOLAY NIKOLAEVICH SEMENOV for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions.


1955 Hugo Theorell; SW;"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes

1954 John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, Frederick C. Robbins;US,US,US; "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue
1954  Chemistry: LINUS CARL PAULING for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.


1953 Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann; Uk,US;"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle; "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[52]

1952 Selman A. Waksman;US; "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis

1951 Max Theiler; SA;"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

1950 Edward C. Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip S. Hench;US,US,SW "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

1949 Walter Hess, Egas Moniz; Portugal;"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses

1948 Paul Müller; SW,SW;"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[47]; "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs
1948  Chemistry;

ARNE WILHELM KAURIN TISELIUS for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins


1947 Carl Cori, Gerty Cori, Bernardo Houssay; US,US,Argentina; "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen
1947 Chemistry;

SIR ROBERT ROBINSON for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids


1946 Hermann J. Muller; US;"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation
1946 Chemistry:

The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:

JAMES BATCHELLER SUMNER for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized; the other half jointly to JOHN HOWARD NORTHROP and WENDELL MEREDITH STANLEY for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.


1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey; UK,UK,Australia;"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases

1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert S. Gasser;US,US;"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres

1943 Henrik Dam, Edward A. Doisy;Denmark, US; "for his discovery of vitamin K, "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K

1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1939 Gerhard Domagk; Germany;"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil
1939 Chemistry.

ADOLF FRIEDRICH JOHANN BUTENANDT for his work on sex hormones. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal).


1938 Corneille Heymans Belgium; "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration
1938  Chemistry;

RICHARD KUHN for his work on carotenoids and vitamins. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal.)


1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi; hungary;  "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid
1937  Chemistry;

The prize was divided equally between:

SIR WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C. and PAUL KARRER for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2


1936 Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi; UK,Austria; "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses

1935 Hans Spemann; germany;"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development

1934 George H. Whipple, George R. Minot, William P. Murphy; US,US,US;"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia

1933 Thomas H. Morgan;US; "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity

1932 Sir Charles Sherrington, Edgar Adrian;UK,UK; "for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons

1931 Otto Warburg: germany; "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme

1930 Karl Landsteiner; Austria;"for his discovery of human blood groups
1930  Chemistry;

HANS FISCHER for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin.


1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Hopkins; Netherland;"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin
1929 Chemistry;

The prize was divided equally between:

SIR ARTHUR HARDEN and HANS KARL AUGUST SIMON VON EULER-CHELPIN for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes.


1928 Charles Nicolle; "France; for his work on typhus

1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg; Austria; "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

1926 Johannes Fibiger; Denmark;"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma

1925 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1924 Willem Einthoven ,Netherland;"for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram

1923 Frederick G. Banting, John Macleod; Canada, Canada;"for the discovery of insulin

1922 Archibald V. Hill, Otto Meyerhof;UK,Germany; "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle; "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle

1921 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section;

1920 August Krogh; Denmark:"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism

1919 Jules Bordet; Belgium; "for his discoveries relating to immunity

1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1915 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1915 Chemistry;

RICHARD MARTIN WILLSTÄTTER for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll.


1914 Robert Bárány  Austria; "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus

1913 Charles Richet; France;"[for] his work on anaphylaxis

1912 Alexis Carrel; france;"[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs

1911 Allvar Gullstrand;Sweeden; "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye

1910 Albrecht Kossel; Germany;"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances
1909 Theodor Kocher; SW; for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[
1908 Ilya Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich; Russia, Germany;"in recognition of their work on immuni

1907 Alphonse Laveran; France;"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases
1907 Chemistry:

EDUARD BUCHNER for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation.


1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal; Spain; "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system

1905 Robert Koch; Germany; "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis

1904 Ivan Pavlov; Russia;"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"[

1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen; Denmark;"[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[11]

1902 Ronald Ross;UK; "for his work on malaria; "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it
1902;chemistry

HERMANN EMIL FISCHER in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses.


1901 Emil von Behring;Germany;  for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths

1901; Chemistry

JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN'T HOFF in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions

 

Note:

Ten women have won the Nobel Prizes: Gerty Cori (1947), Rosalyn Yalow (1977), Barbara McClintock (1983), Rita Levi-Montalcini (1986), Gertrude B. Elion (1988), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1995), Linda B. Buck (2004), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008), Elizabeth H. Blackburn (2009) and Carol W. Greider (2009).[8] As of 2010, the prize has been awarded to 196 individuals. There have been nine years in which the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was not awarded (1915–1918, 1921, 1925, 1940–1942).

 Note:  The list is of the people who have been recognized by the NOBEL committee;  but behind them there are/were many scholars remain unquoted or quoted and recognized by their work and worth; e.x. Donhue- who gave the clue to J.D.Watson about the tautomeric nature of ‘Bases’ in DNA, Miss Franklin provides the X-ray diffraction photo of the DNA; Dr. G. Ramachandra IISc,  protein structural plot–now it is well known as G. Ramachandran plot.

 

List of Nobel laureates by country

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Laureates of the Nobel Prize listed by country: Listings for Economics refer to the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. In contrast to the Nobel Prize, this award does not originate from the legacy of Alfred Nobel, but was founded by the Swedish central bank in 1968. The Nobel prize has been awarded 829 times, whereof 23 awards are affiliated with organizations.[1]

The present list ranks laureates under the country/countries that are stated by the Nobel Prize committee on its website.[2] The list does not distinguish between laureates who got a full prize and the majority who got just a fraction of a prize.[3] Some laureates are listed under more than one country, because the official website mentions multiple countries in relation to the laureate.[4] If a country is merely mentioned as the place of birth, an asterisk(*) is used in the respective listing to indicate this.[5] In this case, the birth country is mentioned in italics at the other listings of this laureate. For the same award, two birth place related listings occur when the place of birth is currently in a different country then at the time of birth. Laureate–country connections that are not mentioned at the official website are not considered in this list.

Organizations are listed here if the Nobel Prize committee relates them to a single country.

Algeria

  1. Claude Cohen-Tannoudji*, Born in then French Algeria, Physics, 1997
  2. Albert Camus*, Born in then French Algeria, Literature, 1957

Argentina

  1. César Milstein, Physiology or Medicine, 1984
  2. Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Peace, 1980
  3. Luis Federico Leloir, Chemistry, 1970
  4. Bernardo Houssay, Physiology or Medicine, 1947
  5. Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Peace, 1936

Australia

  1. Elizabeth H. Blackburn*, Physiology or Medicine, 2009
  2. Barry Marshall, Physiology or Medicine, 2005
  3. J. Robin Warren, Physiology or Medicine, 2005
  4. Peter C. Doherty, Physiology or Medicine, 1996
  5. John Warcup Cornforth, Chemistry, 1975
  6. Patrick White, born in the United Kingdom, Literature, 1973
  7. John Carew Eccles, Physiology or Medicine, 1963
  8. Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Physiology or Medicine, 1960
  9. Sir Howard Florey, Physiology or Medicine, 1945
  10. William Lawrence Bragg*, Physics, 1915 (youngest recipient of a prize at age of 25)

Austria

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency, Peace, 2005
  2. Elfriede Jelinek, Literature, 2004
  3. Eric R. Kandel*, Physiology or Medicine, 2000
  4. Walter Kohn*, Chemistry, 1998
  5. Friedrich Hayek, Economics, 1974
  6. Konrad Lorenz, Physiology or Medicine, 1973
  7. Karl von Frisch*, Physiology or Medicine, 1973
  8. Max F. Perutz, Chemistry, 1962
  9. Wolfgang Pauli, Physics, 1945
  10. Richard Kuhn*, Chemistry 1938
  11. Otto Loewi*, Physiology or Medicine, 1936
  12. Victor Francis Hess, Physics, 1936
  13. Erwin Schrödinger, Physics, 1933
  14. Karl Landsteiner, Physiology or Medicine, 1930
  15. Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Physiology or Medicine, 1927
  16. Friderik Pregl, born in then Austria-Hungary, now Slovenia, Chemistry, 1923
  17. Alfred Hermann Fried, Peace, 1911
  18. Robert Bárány, Physiology or Medicine, 1914
  19. Bertha von Suttner, born in then Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic, Peace, 1905

Azerbaijan

  1. Lev Landau, born in then Russian Empire, laureate when citizen of the Soviet Union, Physics, 1962

[edit] Bangladesh

  1. Muhammad Yunus, Grameen Bank, Peace, 2006

Belarus

  1. Zhores Ivanovich Alferov*, born in then Soviet Union, now Belarus, Physics, 2000
  2. Shimon Peres, born in then Poland, now Belarus, Peace, 1994
  3. Menachem Begin*, born in now Belarus, Peace, 1978
  4. Simon Kuznets*, born in now Belarus, Economics, 1971

Belgium

  1. Ilya Prigogine, born in Russia, Chemistry, 1977
  2. Christian de Duve, born in the United Kingdom, Physiology and Medicine, 1974
  3. Albert Claude, Physiology and Medicine, 1974
  4. Georges Pire, Peace, 1958
  5. Corneille Heymans, Physiology and Medicine, 1938
  6. Jules Bordet, Physiology and Medicine, 1919
  7. Henri La Fontaine, Peace, 1913
  8. Maurice Maeterlinck, Literature, 1911
  9. Auguste Beernaert, Peace, 1909
  10. Institut de Droit International, Peace, 1904

Bosnia and Herzegovina

  1. Vladimir Prelog*, born in then Austria–Hungary, now Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chemistry, 1975
  2. Ivo Andric*, born in Travnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Literature, 1961

 

Bulgaria

  1. Elias Canetti*, Literature, 1981

Canada

  1. Willard S. Boyle*, Physics, 2009
  2. Robert Mundell, Economics, 1999
  3. Myron Scholes*, Economics, 1997
  4. William Vickrey*, Economic Sciences, 1996
  5. Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, Peace, 1995
  6. Bertram N. Brockhouse, Physics, 1994
  7. Michael Smith, born in the United Kingdom, Chemistry, 1993
  8. Rudolph A. Marcus*, Chemistry, 1992
  9. Richard E. Taylor, Physics, 1990
  10. Sidney Altman, Chemistry, 1989
  11. Henry Taube*, Chemistry, 1983
  12. David H. Hubel*, Physiology or Medicine, 1981
  13. Saul Bellow*, Literature, 1976
  14. Gerhard Herzberg, born in Germany, Chemistry, 1971
  15. Charles B. Huggins*, Physiology or Medicine, 1966
  16. Lester B. Pearson, Peace, 1957
  17. John C. Polányi, born in Germany, Chemistry, 1986
  18. William Giauque*, Chemistry, 1949
  19. Frederick G. Banting, Physiology or Medicine, 1923

Chile

  1. Pablo Neruda, Literature, 1971
  2. Gabriela Mistral, Literature, 1945

People's Republic of China

Main article: List of Chinese Nobel laureates

  1. Liu Xiaobo, Peace, 2010
  2. Tenzin Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama), Peace, 1989

Republic of China

Main article: List of Ethnic Chinese Nobel laureates

  1. Yuan Tseh Lee, Chemistry, 1986
  2. Chen Ning Yang, Physics, 1957
  3. Tsung-Dao Lee, Physics, 1957

Colombia

  1. Gabriel García Márquez, Literature, 1982

Costa Rica

  1. Oscar Arias Sánchez, Peace, 1987

Croatia

  1. Leopold Ružička*, born in then Austro-Hungarian Empire, laureate when citizen of Yugoslavia, Chemistry, 1939
  2. Vladimir Prelog*, born in then Austro-Hungarian Empire, laureate when citizen of Yugoslavia, Chemistry, 1975
  3. Ivo Andrić*, born in then Austro-Hungarian Empire, laureate when citizen of Yugoslavia, Literature, 1961

Cyprus

  1. Christopher A. Pissarides, Economics, 2010

Czech Republic

  1. Jaroslav Seifert, Literature, 1984
  2. Jaroslav Heyrovský, Chemistry, 1959
  3. Carl Ferdinand Cori*, born in then Austria-Hungary, Physiology or Medicine, 1947
  4. Gerty Cori*, born in then Austria-Hungary, Physiology or Medicine, 1947
  5. Bertha von Suttner*, born in then Austrian-Hungary, Peace, 1905

Denmark

  1. Jens Christian Skou, Chemistry, 1997
  2. Niels Kaj Jerne, Physiology or Medicine, 1984
  3. Aage Bohr, Physics, 1975
  4. Ben Roy Mottelson, Physics, 1975
  5. Johannes Vilhelm Jensen, Literature, 1944
  6. Henrik Dam, Physiology or Medicine, 1943
  7. Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger, Physiology or Medicine, 1926
  8. Niels Bohr, Physics, 1922
  9. August Krogh, Physiology or Medicine, 1920
  10. Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Literature, 1917
  11. Henrik Pontoppidan, Literature, 1917
  12. Fredrik Bajer, Peace, 1908
  13. Niels Ryberg Finsen, born on Faroe Islands, Physiology or Medicine, 1903

East Timor

  1. Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, Peace, 1996
  2. José Ramos-Horta, Peace, 1996

Egypt

  1. Mohamed El Baradei, Peace, 2005
  2. Ahmed Zewail, Chemistry, 1999
  3. Naguib Mahfouz, Literature, 1988
  4. Anwar El Sadat, Peace, 1978

[edit] Faroe Islands

  1. Niels Ryberg Finsen*, Physiology or Medicine, 1903

Finland

  1. Martti Ahtisaari, Peace, 2008
  2. Ragnar Granit*, born in then Russian Empire, Physiology or Medicine, 1967
  3. Artturi Ilmari Virtanen, born in then Russian Empire, Chemistry, 1945
  4. Frans Eemil Sillanpää, born in then Russian Empire, Literature, 1939

France

  1. J. M. G. Le Clézio, Literature, 2008
  2. Luc Montagnier, Physiology or Medicine, 2008
  3. Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Physiology or Medicine, 2008
  4. Albert Fert, Physics, 2007
  5. Yves Chauvin, Chemistry, 2005
  6. Gao Xingjian, born in China, Literature, 2000
  7. Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, born in Algeria, Physics, 1997
  8. Georges Charpak, Physics, 1992
  9. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Physics, 1991
  10. Maurice Allais, Economics, 1988
  11. Jean-Marie Lehn, Chemistry, 1987
  12. Claude Simon, born on Madagascar, Literature, 1985
  13. Gerard Debreu, Economics, 1983
  14. Jean Dausset, Physiology or Medicine, 1980
  15. Roger Guillemin*, Physiology or Medicine, 1977
  16. Seán MacBride*, Peace, 1974
  17. Louis Néel, Physics, 1970
  18. René Cassin, Peace, 1968
  19. Alfred Kastler, Physics, 1966
  20. François Jacob, Physiology or Medicine, 1965
  21. Jacques Monod, Physiology or Medicine, 1965
  22. André Lwoff, Physiology or Medicine, 1965
  23. Jean-Paul Sartre, Literature, 1964 (declined the prize)
  24. Saint-John Perse, Literature, 1960
  25. Albert Camus, born in Algeria, Literature, 1957
  26. Andre Frederic Cournand, Physiology or Medicine, 1956
  27. François Mauriac, Literature, 1952
  28. Léon Jouhaux, Peace, 1951
  29. André Gide, Literature, 1947
  30. Roger Martin du Gard, Literature, 1937
  31. Frédéric Joliot, Chemistry, 1935
  32. Irčne Joliot-Curie, Chemistry, 1935
  33. Ivan Bunin, born in Russia, Literature, 1933
  34. Charles Nicolle, Physiology or Medicine, 1928
  35. Henri Bergson, Literature, 1927
  36. Ferdinand Buisson, Peace, 1927
  37. Aristide Briand, Peace, 1926
  38. Jean-Baptiste Perrin, Physics, 1926
  39. Anatole France, Literature, 1921
  40. Léon Bourgeois, Peace, 1920
  41. Romain Rolland, Literature, 1915
  42. Charles Richet, Physiology or Medicine, 1913
  43. Alexis Carrel, Medicine, 1912
  44. Paul Sabatier, Chemistry, 1912
  45. Victor Grignard, Chemistry, 1912
  46. Marie Curie, born in then Russian Empire, now Poland, Chemistry, 1911
  47. Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant, Peace, 1909
  48. Gabriel Lippmann*, born in Luxembourg, Physics, 1908
  49. Alphonse Laveran, Physiology or Medicine, 1907
  50. Louis Renault, Peace, 1907
  51. Henri Moissan, Chemistry, 1906
  52. Frédéric Mistral, Literature, 1904
  53. Antoine Henri Becquerel, Physics, 1903
  54. Pierre Curie, Physics, 1903
  55. Marie Curie, born in then Russian Empire, now Poland, Physics, 1903
  56. Frédéric Passy, Peace, 1901
  57. Sully Prudhomme, Literature, 1901

Germany

  1. Herta Müller, born in Romania, Literature, 2009
  2. Harald zur Hausen, Physiology or Medicine, 2008
  3. Gerhard Ertl, Chemistry, 2007
  4. Peter Grünberg, born in then Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, now the Czech Republic, Physics, 2007
  5. Theodor W. Hänsch, Physics, 2005
  6. Robert Aumann*, Economics, 2005
  7. Wolfgang Ketterle, Physics, 2001
  8. Herbert Kroemer, Physics, 2000
  9. Günter Blobel*, Physiology or Medicine, 1999
  10. Günter Grass, born in then Free City of Danzig, now Poland, Literature, 1999
  11. Horst L. Störmer, Physics, 1998
  12. Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Physiology or Medicine, 1995
  13. Reinhard Selten, Economics, 1994
  14. Bert Sakmann, Physiology or Medicine, 1991
  15. Erwin Neher, Physiology or Medicine, 1991
  16. Hans G. Dehmelt*, Physics, 1989
  17. Wolfgang Paul, Physics, 1989
  18. Johann Deisenhofer, Chemistry, 1988
  19. Robert Huber, Chemistry, 1988
  20. Hartmut Michel, Chemistry, 1988
  21. Jack Steinberger*, Physics, 1988
  22. J. Georg Bednorz, Physics, 1987
  23. Ernst Ruska, Physics, 1986
  24. Gerd Binnig, Physics, 1986
  25. Klaus von Klitzing, Physics, 1985
  26. Georges J.F. Köhler*, Physiology or Medicine, 1984
  27. Georg Wittig, Chemistry, 1979
  28. Arno Penzias*, Physics, 1978
  29. Henry Kissinger*, Peace, 1973
  30. Ernst Otto Fischer, Chemistry, 1973
  31. Karl Ritter von Frisch, born in then Austria-Hungary, now Austria, Physiology or Medicine, 1973
  32. Heinrich Böll, Literature, 1972
  33. Gerhard Herzberg*, Chemistry, 1971
  34. Willy Brandt, Peace, 1971
  35. Bernard Katz*, Physiology or Medicine, 1970
  36. Max Delbrück*, Physiology or Medicine, 1969
  37. Manfred Eigen, Chemistry, 1967
  38. Hans Albrecht Bethe*, Physics, 1967
  39. Nelly Sachs*, Literature, 1966
  40. Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen, Physiology or Medicine, 1964
  41. Konrad Bloch*, Physiology or Medicine, 1964
  42. Karl Ziegler, Chemistry, 1963
  43. Maria Goeppert-Mayer*, Physics, 1963
  44. J. Hans D. Jensen, Physics, 1963
  45. Rudolf Mössbauer, Physics, 1961
  46. Werner Forssmann, Physiology or Medicine, 1956
  47. Max Born*, Physics, 1954
  48. Walther Bothe, Physics, 1954
  49. Hermann Staudinger, Chemistry, 1953
  50. Fritz Albert Lipmann*, Physiology or Medicine, 1953
  51. Hans Adolf Krebs*, Physiology or Medicine, 1953
  52. Albert Schweitzer*, Peace, 1952
  53. Otto Diels, Chemistry, 1950
  54. Kurt Alder, Chemistry, 1950
  55. Herman Hesse*, Literature, 1946
  56. Ernst Boris Chain*, Physiology or Medicine, 1945
  57. Otto Hahn, Chemistry 1944
  58. Otto Stern*, Physics, 1943
  59. Adolf Butenandt, Chemistry, 1939
  60. Gerhard Domagk, Physiology or Medicine, 1939
  61. Richard Kuhn, born in Austria, Chemistry, 1938
  62. Carl von Ossietzky, Peace, 1935
  63. Hans Spemann, Physiology or Medicine, 1935
  64. Werner Karl Heisenberg, Physics, 1932
  65. Otto Heinrich Warburg, Physiology or Medicine, 1931
  66. Carl Bosch, Chemistry 1931
  67. Friedrich Bergius, Chemistry, 1931
  68. Hans Fischer, Chemistry, 1930
  69. Thomas Mann, Literature, 1929
  70. Hans von Euler-Chelpin*, Chemistry, 1929
  71. Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus, Chemistry, 1928
  72. Ludwig Quidde, Peace, 1927
  73. Heinrich Otto Wieland, Chemistry, 1927
  74. Gustav Stresemann, Peace, 1926
  75. James Franck, Physics, 1925
  76. Gustav Ludwig Hertz, Physics, 1925
  77. Otto Fritz Meyerhof, Physiology or Medicine, 1922
  78. Albert Einstein, Physics, 1921
  79. Walther Nernst, Chemistry, 1920
  80. Johannes Stark, Physics, 1919
  81. Fritz Haber, Chemistry 1918
  82. Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, Physics, 1918
  83. Richard Willstätter, Chemistry, 1915
  84. Max von Laue, Physics, 1914
  85. Gerhart Hauptmann, born in then Prussia, now Poland, Literature, 1912
  86. Wilhelm Wien, Physics, 1911
  87. Otto Wallach, Chemistry, 1910
  88. Albrecht Kossel, Physiology or Medicine, 1910
  89. Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse, Literature, 1910
  90. Karl Ferdinand Braun, Physics, 1909
  91. Wilhelm Ostwald, born in then Russia, now Latvia, Chemistry, 1909
  92. Rudolf Christoph Eucken, Literature, 1908
  93. Paul Ehrlich, Physiology or Medicine, 1908
  94. Eduard Buchner, Chemistry, 1907
  95. Albert Abraham Michelson*, born in then Prussia, now Poland, Physics 1907
  96. Robert Koch, Physiology or Medicine, 1905
  97. Philipp Lenard, born in then Austrian Empire, now Slovakia, Physics, 1905
  98. Adolf von Baeyer, Chemistry, 1905
  99. Hermann Emil Fischer, Chemistry, 1902
  100. Theodor Mommsen, born in then Denmark, Literature, 1902
  101. Emil Adolf von Behring, Physiology or Medicine, 1901
  102. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Physics, 1901

Ghana

  1. Kofi Annan, Peace, 2001

Greece

  1. Odysseas Elytis, Literature, 1979
  2. Giorgos Seferis, Literature, 1963

Guatemala

  1. Rigoberta Menchú, Peace, 1992
  2. Miguel Ángel Asturias, Literature, 1967

Hong Kong, China

  1. Charles K. Kao, Physics, 2009

Hungary

  1. Imre Kertész, Literature, 2002
  2. George Andrew Olah* (György Oláh), Chemistry, 1994
  3. John Harsanyi*, (Harsányi János) Economics, 1994
  4. Dennis Gabor* (Dénes Gábor), Physics, 1971
  5. Eugene Wigner* (Jenő Wigner), Physics, 1963
  6. Georg von Békésy* (György Békésy), Physiology or Medicine, 1961
  7. George de Hevesy (György Hevesy), Chemistry, 1943
  8. Albert Szent-Györgyi, Physiology or Medicine, 1937
  9. Richard Adolf Zsigmondy*, Chemistry, 1925
  10. Fülöp von Lénárd, (Lenárd Fülöp) Physics, 1905[7]

Iceland

  1. Halldór Laxness, Literature, 1955

India

Main article: Nobel laureates of India

  1. Venkatraman Ramakrishnan*, Chemistry, 2009
  2. Amartya Sen, Economics, 1998
  3. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, born in then British India,, Physics, 1983
  4. Mother Teresa, born in then Ottoman Empire, now Macedonia, Peace, 1979
  5. Har Gobind Khorana, born in then British India,, Medicine, 1968
  6. C. V. Raman, Physics, 1930
  7. Rabindranath Tagore, Literature, 1913
  8. Rudyard Kipling, "born in Bombay, British India was the youngest ever recipient of the award", Literature, 1907
  9. Ronald Ross, "was born in India and a citizen of India of foreign origin", Medicine for his work on malaria, 1902

Iran

  1. Doris Lessing*, Literature, 2007
  2. Shirin Ebadi, Peace, 2003

Ireland

  1. John Hume, Northern Ireland, Peace, 1998
  2. David Trimble, Northern Ireland, Peace, 1998
  3. Séamus Heaney, Literature, 1995
  4. Betty Williams, Northern Ireland, Peace, 1976
  5. Mairéad Corrigan, Northern Ireland, Peace, 1976
  6. Seán MacBride, born in France, Peace, 1974
  7. Samuel Beckett, Literature, 1969
  8. Ernest Walton, Physics, 1951
  9. George Bernard Shaw*, Literature, 1925
  10. William Butler Yeats, Literature, 1923

Israel

See also: List of Jewish Nobel laureates

  1. Ada E. Yonath, Chemistry, 2009
  2. Robert Aumann, born in Germany, Economics, 2005
  3. Aaron Ciechanover, Chemistry, 2004
  4. Avram Hershko, born in Hungary, Chemistry, 2004
  5. Daniel Kahneman, Economics, 2002
  6. Yitzhak Rabin, Peace, 1994
  7. Shimon Peres, born in then Poland, now Belarus, Peace, 1994
  8. Menachem Begin, born in then Russia, now Belarus, Peace, 1978
  9. Shmuel Yosef Agnon, born in then Austria-Hungary, now Ukraine, Literature, 1966

Italy

  1. Mario Capecchi*, Physiology or Medicine, 2007
  2. Riccardo Giacconi*, Physics, 2002
  3. Dario Fo, Literature, 1997
  4. Rita Levi-Montalcini, Physiology or Medicine, 1986
  5. Franco Modigliani, Economics, 1985
  6. Carlo Rubbia, Physics, 1984
  7. Renato Dulbecco*, Physiology or Medicine, 1975
  8. Eugenio Montale, Literature, 1975
  9. Salvador Luria*, Physiology or Medicine, 1969
  10. Giulio Natta, Chemistry, 1963
  11. Salvatore Quasimodo, Literature, 1959
  12. Emilio G. Segrč, Physics, 1959
  13. Daniel Bovet, born in Switzerland, Physiology or Medicine, 1957
  14. Enrico Fermi, Physics, 1938
  15. Luigi Pirandello, Literature, 1934
  16. Grazia Deledda, Literature, 1926
  17. Guglielmo Marconi, Physics, 1909
  18. Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Peace, 1907
  19. Giosuč Carducci, Literature, 1906
  20. Camillo Golgi, Physiology or Medicine, 1906

Japan

Main article: List of Japanese Nobel laureates

  1. Ei-ichi Negishi*, Chemistry 2010
  2. Akira Suzuki, Chemistry 2010
  3. Osamu Shimomura*, Chemistry, 2008
  4. Makoto Kobayashi, Physics, 2008
  5. Toshihide Maskawa, Physics, 2008
  6. Yoichiro Nambu*, Physics, 2008
  7. Masatoshi Koshiba, Physics, 2002
  8. Koichi Tanaka, Chemistry, 2002
  9. Ryōji Noyori, Chemistry, 2001
  10. Hideki Shirakawa, Chemistry, 2000
  11. Kenzaburō Ōe, Literature, 1994
  12. Susumu Tonegawa, Physiology or Medicine, 1987
  13. Charles J. Pedersen*, Chemistry, 1987
  14. Kenichi Fukui, Chemistry, 1981
  15. Eisaku Satō, Peace, 1974
  16. Leo Esaki, Physics, 1973
  17. Yasunari Kawabata, Literature, 1968
  18. Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Physics, 1965
  19. Hideki Yukawa, Physics, 1949

Kenya

  1. Wangari Maathai, Peace, 2004

Korea, South

  1. Kim Dae-jung, Peace, 2000

Latvia

  1. Wilhelm Ostwald*, born in then Russian Empire, Chemistry, 1909

Lithuania

  1. Aaron Klug*, Chemistry, 1982
  2. Czesław Miłosz, born in then Russian Empire, now Lithuania, Literature, 1980

Republic of Macedonia

  1. Mother Teresa*, Peace, 1979

Mexico

  1. Mario J. Molina*, Chemistry, 1995
  2. Octavio Paz, Literature, 1990
  3. Alfonso García Robles, Peace, 1982

Myanmar (Burma)

  1. Aung San Suu Kyi, Peace, 1991

Netherlands

  1. Andre Geim, born in Russia, Physics, 2010
  2. Martinus J. G. Veltman, Physics, 1999
  3. Gerardus 't Hooft, Physics, 1999
  4. Paul J. Crutzen, Chemistry, 1995
  5. Simon van der Meer, Physics, 1984
  6. Nicolaas Bloembergen*, Physics, 1981
  7. Tjalling Koopmans, Economics, 1975
  8. Nikolaas Tinbergen*, Physiology or Medicine, 1973
  9. Jan Tinbergen, Economics, 1969
  10. Frits Zernike, Physics, 1953
  11. Peter Debye, Chemistry, 1936
  12. Christiaan Eijkman, Physiology or Medicine, 1929
  13. Willem Einthoven, Physiology or Medicine, 1924
  14. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Physics, 1913
  15. Tobias Asser, Peace, 1911
  16. Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Physics, 1910
  17. Pieter Zeeman, Physics, 1902
  18. Hendrik Lorentz, Physics, 1902
  19. Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Chemistry, 1901

New Zealand

  1. Alan MacDiarmid*, Chemistry, 2000
  2. Maurice Wilkins*, Physiology or Medicine, 1962
  3. Ernest Rutherford*, Chemistry, 1908

Nigeria

  1. Wole Soyinka, Literature, 1986

Norway

  1. Finn E. Kydland, Economics, 2004
  2. Trygve Haavelmo, Economics, 1989
  3. Charles J. Pedersen*, Chemistry, 1987
  4. Ivar Giaever, Physics, 1973
  5. Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch, Economics, 1969
  6. Odd Hassel, Chemistry, 1969
  7. Lars Onsager, Chemistry, 1968
  8. Sigrid Undset, Literature, 1928
  9. Fridtjof Nansen, Peace, 1922
  10. Christian Lous Lange, Peace, 1921
  11. Knut Hamsun, Literature, 1920
  12. Bjřrnstjerne Bjřrnson, Literature, 1903

Pakistan

  1. Abdus Salam, Physics, 1979

Peru

  1. Mario Vargas Llosa, Literature, 2010

Poland

  1. Wisława Szymborska, Literature, 1996
  2. Joseph Rotblat*, born in then Russian Empire, Peace, 1995
  3. Georges Charpak*, born in now Ukraine, Physics, 1992
  4. Lech Wałęsa, Peace, 1983
  5. Roald Hoffmann*, born in now Ukraine, Chemistry, 1981
  6. Czesław Miłosz, born in then Russian Empire, now Lithuania, Literature, 1980
  7. Isaac Bashevis Singer*, born in then Russian Empire, Literature, 1978
  8. Tadeus Reichstein*, born in then Russian Empire, Physiology or Medicine, 1950
  9. Władysław Reymont, born in then Russian Empire, Literature, 1924
  10. Marie Skłodowska-Curie*, born in then Russian Empire, Chemistry, 1911
  11. Henryk Sienkiewicz, born in then Russian Empire, Literature, 1905
  12. Maria Skłodowska-Curie*, born in then Russian Empire, Physics, 1903

Portugal

  1. José de Sousa Saramago, Literature, 1998
  2. Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo*, born in then Portuguese Timor, now East Timor, Peace, 1996
  3. José Ramos-Horta*, born in then Portuguese Timor, now East Timor, Peace, 1996
  4. António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz, Physiology or Medicine, 1949

Romania

  1. Herta Müller*, Literature, 2009
  2. Elie Wiesel*, Peace, 1986
  3. George E. Palade*, Physiology or Medicine, 1974

Russia

  1. Andre Geim*, Physics, 2010
  2. Konstantin Novoselov*, Physics, 2010
  3. Leonid Hurwicz*, Economics, 2007
  4. Alexei A. Abrikosov*, Physics, 2003
  5. Vitaly Ginzburg, Physics, 2003
  6. Zhores Ivanovich Alferov, born in then Soviet Union, now Belarus, Physics, 2000
  7. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, Peace, 1990
  8. Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky*, Literature, 1987
  9. Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, Physics, 1978
  10. Menachem Begin*, born in now Belarus, Peace, 1978
  11. Ilya Prigogine*, Chemistry, 1977
  12. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, Peace, 1975
  13. Leonid Vitalyevich Kantorovich, Economics, 1975
  14. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Literature, 1970
  15. Michail Sholokhov, Literature, 1965
  16. Nicolay G. Basov, Physics, 1964
  17. Aleksandr M. Prokhorov, born in Australia, Physics, 1964
  18. Lev Davidovich Landau, Physics, 1962
  19. Boris Pasternak, Literature, 1958 (forced to decline)
  20. Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Physics, 1958
  21. Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm, Physics, 1958
  22. Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, Physics, 1958
  23. Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov, Chemistry, 1956
  24. Ivan Bunin*, Literature, 1933
  25. Wilhelm Ostwald*, born in now Latvia, Chemistry, 1909
  26. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, born in now Ukraine, Physiology or Medicine, 1908
  27. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Physiology or Medicine, 1904

St Lucia

  1. Derek Walcott, Literature, 1992
  2. Sir Arthur Lewis*, Economics, 1979

Serbia

  1. Ivo Andrić*, born in then Austria–Hungary, now Bosnia-Herzegovina, spent most of his life in Belgrade, Literature, 1961

Slovenia

  1. Friderik Pregl*, born in then Austria-Hungary, Chemistry, 1923

South Africa

  1. J. M. Coetzee, Literature, 2003
  2. Sydney Brenner*, Physiology or Medicine, 2002
  3. F.W. de Klerk, Peace, 1993
  4. Nelson Mandela, Peace, 1993
  5. Nadine Gordimer, Literature, 1991
  6. Desmond Tutu, Peace, 1984
  7. Allan M. Cormack*, Physiology or Medicine, 1979
  8. Albert Lutuli, Peace, 1960
  9. Max Theiler, Physiology or Medicine, 1951

Spain

  1. Camilo José Cela, Literature, 1989
  2. Vicente Aleixandre, Literature, 1977
  3. Severo Ochoa*, Physiology or Medicine, 1959
  4. Juan Ramón Jiménez, Literature, 1956
  5. Jacinto Benavente, Literature, 1922
  6. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Physiology or Medicine, 1906
  7. José Echegaray, Literature, 1904

Sweden

  1. Arvid Carlsson, Physiology or Medicine, 2000
  2. Alva Myrdal, Peace, 1982
  3. Sune Bergström, Physiology or Medicine, 1982
  4. Bengt I. Samuelsson, Physiology or Medicine, 1982
  5. Kai Siegbahn, Physics, 1981
  6. Torsten Wiesel*, Physiology or Medicine, 1981
  7. Bertil Ohlin, Economics, 1977
  8. Eyvind Johnson, Literature, 1974
  9. Harry Martinson, Literature, 1974
  10. Gunnar Myrdal, Economics, 1974
  11. Ulf von Euler, Physiology or Medicine, 1970
  12. Hannes Alfvén, Physics, 1970
  13. Ragnar Granit, born in then Russian Empire, now Finland, Physiology or Medicine, 1967
  14. Nelly Sachs, born in Germany, Literature, 1966
  15. Dag Hammarskjöld, Peace, 1961 (posthumously)
  16. Pär Lagerkvist, Literature, 1951
  17. Arne Tiselius, Chemistry, 1948
  18. Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Literature, 1931
  19. Nathan Söderblom, Peace, 1930
  20. Hans von Euler-Chelpin, born in Germany, Chemistry, 1929
  21. Theodor Svedberg, Chemistry, 1926
  22. Karl Manne Siegbahn, Physics, 1924
  23. Hjalmar Branting, Peace, 1921
  24. Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam, Literature, 1916
  25. Gustaf Dalén, Physics, 1912
  26. Selma Lagerlöf, Literature, 1909
  27. Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Peace, 1908
  28. Svante Arrhenius, Chemistry, 1903

Switzerland

  1. Kurt Wüthrich, Chemistry, 2002
  2. Médecins Sans Frontičres, Peace, 1999
  3. Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Physiology or Medicine, 1996
  4. Edmond H. Fischer, born in China, Physiology or Medicine, 1992
  5. Richard R. Ernst, Chemistry, 1991
  6. Karl Alexander Müller, Physics, 1987
  7. Heinrich Rohrer, Physics, 1986
  8. Georges J. F. Köhler, born in Germany, Physiology or Medicine, 1984
  9. Werner Arber, Physiology or Medicine, 1978
  10. Vladimir Prelog, born in then Austria-Hungary, now Bosnia-Herzegovina, Chemistry, 1975
  11. Daniel Bovet, Physiology or Medicine, 1957
  12. Felix Bloch, Physics, 1952
  13. Tadeus Reichstein, Physiology or Medicine, 1950
  14. Walter Rudolf Hess, Physiology or Medicine, 1949
  15. Paul Hermann Müller, Physiology or Medicine, 1948
  16. Hermann Hesse, born in Germany, Literature, 1946
  17. Leopold Ružička, born in then Austria-Hungary, now Croatia, Chemistry, 1939
  18. Paul Karrer, Chemistry, 1937
  19. Albert Einstein, born in Germany, Physics, 1921
  20. Charles Édouard Guillaume, Physics, 1920
  21. Carl Spitteler, Literature, 1919
  22. Alfred Werner, Chemistry, 1913
  23. Theodor Kocher, Physiology or Medicine, 1909
  24. Élie Ducommun, Peace, 1902
  25. Charles Albert Gobat, Peace, 1902
  26. Henry Dunant, Peace, 1901

Trinidad and Tobago

  1. V. S. Naipaul*, Literature, 2001

Turkey

  1. Orhan Pamuk, Literature, 2006

Ukraine

  1. Georges Charpak*, born in then Poland, Physics, 1992
  2. Roald Hoffmann*, born in then Poland, Chemistry, 1981
  3. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov*, born in then Russian Empire, Physiology or Medicine, 1908

United Kingdom

  1. Andre Geim, born in Russia, Physics, 2010
  2. Konstantin Novoselov, born in Russia, Physics, 2010
  3. Robert G. Edwards, Physiology or Medicine, 2010
  4. Jack W. Szostak*, Physiology or Medicine, 2009
  5. Charles K. Kao, born in China, Physics, 2009
  6. Doris Lessing, born in Iran, Literature, 2007
  7. Sir Martin J. Evans, Physiology or Medicine, 2007
  8. Oliver Smithies*, Physiology or Medicine, 2007
  9. Harold Pinter, Literature, 2005
  10. Clive W. J. Granger*, Economics, 2003
  11. Anthony J. Leggett*, Physics, 2003
  12. Peter Mansfield, Physiology or Medicine, 2003
  13. Sydney Brenner, born in South Africa, Physiology or Medicine, 2002
  14. John E. Sulston, Physiology or Medicine, 2002
  15. Tim Hunt, Physiology or Medicine, 2001
  16. Paul Nurse, Physiology or Medicine, 2001
  17. V.S. Naipaul, born in Trinidad Literature, 2001
  18. John Pople, Chemistry, 1998
  19. John E. Walker, Chemistry, 1997
  20. Harold Kroto, Chemistry, 1996
  21. James A. Mirrlees, Economics, 1996
  22. Joseph Rotblat, born in then Russian Empire, now Poland, Peace, 1995
  23. Seamus Heaney*, Literature, 1995
  24. Richard J. Roberts, Physiology or Medicine, 1993
  25. Michael Smith*, Chemistry, 1993
  26. Ronald Coase, Economics, 1991
  27. James W. Black, Physiology or Medicine, 1988
  28. Niels Kaj Jerne*, Physiology or Medicine, 1984
  29. César Milstein, born in Argentina, Physiology or Medicine, 1984
  30. Richard Stone, Economics, 1984
  31. William Golding, Literature, 1983
  32. Aaron Klug, born in Lithuania, Chemistry, 1982
  33. John Robert Vane, Physiology or Medicine, 1982
  34. Elias Canetti, born in Bulgaria, Literature, 1981
  35. Frederick Sanger, Chemistry, 1980
  36. Arthur Lewis, born on St. Lucia, Economics, 1979
  37. Godfrey Hounsfield, Physiology or Medicine, 1979
  38. Peter D. Mitchell, Chemistry, 1978
  39. James Meade, Economics, 1977
  40. Nevill Francis Mott, Physics, 1977
  41. Amnesty International, Peace, 1977
  42. John Cornforth, born in Australia, Chemistry, 1975
  43. Christian de Duve*, Physiology or Medicine, 1974
  44. Friedrich Hayek, born in Austria, Economics, 1974
  45. Martin Ryle, Physics, 1974
  46. Antony Hewish, Physics, 1974
  47. Patrick White*, Literature, 1973
  48. Geoffrey Wilkinson, Chemistry, 1973
  49. Brian David Josephson, Physics, 1973
  50. Rodney Robert Porter, Physiology or Medicine, 1972
  51. John Hicks, Economics, 1972
  52. Dennis Gabor, born in Hungary, Physics, 1971
  53. Bernard Katz, born in Germany, Physiology or Medicine, 1970
  54. Derek Harold Richard Barton, Chemistry, 1969
  55. Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, Chemistry, 1967
  56. George Porter, Chemistry, 1967
  57. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Chemistry, 1964
  58. Andrew Huxley, Physiology or Medicine, 1963
  59. Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Physiology or Medicine, 1963
  60. John Kendrew, Chemistry, 1962
  61. Max Perutz, born in Austria, Chemistry, 1962
  62. Francis Crick, Physiology or Medicine, 1962
  63. Maurice Wilkins, born in New Zealand, Physiology or Medicine, 1962
  64. Peter Medawar, born in Brazil, Physiology or Medicine, 1960
  65. Severo Ochoa*, born in Spain, Physiology or Medicine, 1959
  66. Philip Noel-Baker, Peace, 1959
  67. Frederick Sanger, Chemistry, 1958
  68. Alexander R. Todd, Baron Todd, Chemistry, 1957
  69. Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, Chemistry, 1956
  70. Max Born, born in then Germany, now Poland, Physics, 1954
  71. Winston Churchill, Literature, 1953
  72. Hans Adolf Krebs, born in Germany, Physiology or Medicine, 1953
  73. Archer John Porter Martin, Chemistry, 1952
  74. Richard Laurence Millington Synge, Chemistry, 1952
  75. John Cockcroft, Physics, 1951
  76. Bertrand Russell, Literature, 1950
  77. Cecil Frank Powell, Physics, 1950
  78. John Boyd Orr, Peace, 1949
  79. Patrick Blackett, Baron Blackett, Physics, 1948
  80. T. S. Eliot, born in the United States of America, Literature, 1948
  81. Edward Victor Appleton, Physics, 1947
  82. Robert Robinson, Chemistry, 1947
  83. Friends Service Council, Peace, 1947
  84. Ernst Boris Chain, born in Germany, Physiology or Medicine, 1945
  85. Alexander Fleming, Physiology or Medicine, 1945
  86. George Paget Thomson, Physics, 1937
  87. Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, Peace, 1937
  88. Norman Haworth, Chemistry, 1937
  89. Henry Hallett Dale, Physiology or Medicine, 1936
  90. James Chadwick, Physics, 1935
  91. Arthur Henderson, Peace, 1934
  92. Norman Angell, Peace, 1933
  93. Paul Dirac, Physics, 1933
  94. Charles Scott Sherrington, Physiology or Medicine, 1932
  95. John Galsworthy, Literature, 1932
  96. Edgar Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian, Physiology or Medicine, 1932
  97. Arthur Harden, Chemistry, 1929
  98. Frederick Hopkins, Physiology or Medicine, 1929
  99. Owen Willans Richardson, Physics, 1928
  100. Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, Physics, 1927
  101. Austen Chamberlain, Peace, 1925
  102. George Bernard Shaw, born in Ireland, Literature, 1925
    1. John James Rickard Macleod*, Physiology or Medicine, 1923
  103. Francis William Aston, Chemistry, 1922
  104. Archibald Hill, Physiology or Medicine, 1922
  105. Frederick Soddy, Chemistry, 1921
  106. Charles Glover Barkla, Physics, 1917
  107. William Henry Bragg, Physics, 1915
  108. William Lawrence Bragg, born in Australia, Physics, 1915
  109. Ernest Rutherford, born in New Zealand, Chemistry, 1908
  110. Rudyard Kipling, born in India, Literature, 1907
  111. J. J. Thomson, Physics, 1906
  112. John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Physics, 1904
  113. William Ramsay, Chemistry, 1904
  114. William Randal Cremer, Peace, 1903
  115. Ronald Ross, born in India, Physiology or Medicine, 1902

United States

  1. Peter A. Diamond, Economics, 2010
  2. Dale T. Mortensen, Economics, 2010
  3. Richard F. Heck, Chemistry, 2010
  4. Ei-ichi Negishi, born in Japan, Chemistry, 2010
  5. Elinor Ostrom, Economics, 2009
  6. Oliver Eaton Williamson, Economics, 2009
  7. Barack Obama, Peace, 2009
  8. Thomas A. Steitz, Chemistry, 2009
  9. Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, born in India, Chemistry, 2009
  10. Willard S. Boyle, born in Canada, Physics, 2009
  11. Charles K. Kao, born in China, Physics, 2009
  12. George E. Smith, Physics, 2009
  13. Elizabeth Blackburn, born in Australia, Physiology or Medicine, 2009
  14. Carol W. Greider, Physiology or Medicine, 2009
  15. Jack W. Szostak, born in United Kingdom, Physiology or Medicine, 2009
  16. Paul Krugman, Economics, 2008
  17. Roger Yonchien Tsien, Chemistry, 2008
  18. Martin Chalfie, Chemistry, 2008
  19. Osamu Shimomura, born in Japan, Chemistry, 2008
  20. Yoichiro Nambu, born in Japan, Physics, 2008
  21. Leonid Hurwicz, born in Russia, Economics, 2007
  22. Eric S. Maskin, Economics, 2007
  23. Roger B. Myerson, Economics, 2007
  24. Al Gore, Peace, 2007
  25. Mario R. Capecchi, born in Italy, Physiology or Medicine, 2007
  26. Oliver Smithies, born in United Kingdom, Physiology or Medicine, 2007
  27. Roger D. Kornberg, Chemistry, 2006
  28. John C. Mather, Physics, 2006
  29. Edmund S. Phelps, Economics, 2006
  30. George F. Smoot, Physics, 2006
  31. Andrew Z. Fire, Physiology or Medicine, 2006
  32. Craig C. Mello, Physiology or Medicine, 2006
  33. Robert Aumann, born in Germany, Economics, 2005
  34. Robert H. Grubbs, Chemistry, 2005
  35. Richard R. Schrock, Chemistry, 2005
  36. Thomas Schelling, Economics, 2005
  37. John L. Hall, Physics, 2005
  38. Roy J. Glauber, Physics, 2005
  39. Irwin Rose, Chemistry, 2004
  40. Edward C. Prescott, Economics, 2004
  41. David J. Gross, Physics, 2004
  42. H. David Politzer, Physics, 2004
  43. Frank Wilczek, Physics, 2004
  44. Richard Axel, Physiology or Medicine, 2004
  45. Linda B. Buck, Physiology or Medicine, 2004
  46. Peter Agre, Chemistry, 2003
  47. Roderick MacKinnon, Chemistry, 2003
  48. Robert F. Engle, Economics, 2003
  49. Anthony J. Leggett, born in United Kingdom, Physics, 2003
  50. Paul C. Lauterbur, Physiology or Medicine, 2003
  51. Alexei A. Abrikosov, born in Russia, Physics, 2003
  52. Daniel Kahneman, born in Israel, Economics, 2002
  53. Vernon L. Smith, Economics, 2002
  54. Jimmy Carter, Peace, 2002
  55. Raymond Davis Jr., Physics, 2002
  56. Riccardo Giacconi, born in Italy, Physics, 2002
  57. Sydney Brenner, born in South Africa, Physiology or Medicine, 2002
  58. H. Robert Horvitz, Physiology or Medicine, 2002
  59. William S. Knowles, Chemistry, 2001
  60. K. Barry Sharpless, Chemistry, 2001
  61. Joseph E. Stiglitz, Economics, 2001
  62. George A. Akerlof, Economics, 2001
  63. A. Michael Spence, Economics, 2001
  64. Eric A. Cornell, Physics, 2001
  65. Carl E. Wieman, Physics, 2001
  66. Leland H. Hartwell, Physiology or Medicine, 2001
  67. Alan Heeger, Chemistry, 2000
  68. Alan MacDiarmid, born in New Zealand, Chemistry, 2000
  69. James J. Heckman, Economics, 2000
  70. Daniel L. McFadden, Economics, 2000
  71. Jack Kilby, Physics, 2000
  72. Paul Greengard, Physiology or Medicine, 2000
  73. Eric R. Kandel, born in Austria, Physiology or Medicine, 2000
  74. Ahmed H. Zewail, born in Egypt, Chemistry, 1999
  75. Günter Blobel, born in then Germany, now Poland, Physiology or Medicine, 1999
  76. Walter Kohn, born in Austria, Chemistry, 1998
  77. Robert B. Laughlin, Physics, 1998
  78. Daniel C. Tsui, born in China, Physics, 1998
  79. Robert F. Furchgott, Physiology or Medicine, 1998
  80. Louis J. Ignarro, Physiology or Medicine, 1998
  81. Ferid Murad, of Albanian heritage, Physiology or Medicine, 1998
  82. Paul D. Boyer, Chemistry, 1997
  83. Robert C. Merton, Economics, 1997
  84. Myron Scholes, born in Canada, Economics, 1997
  85. Jody Williams, Peace, 1997
  86. Steven Chu, Physics, 1997
  87. William D. Phillips, Physics, 1997
  88. Stanley B. Prusiner, Physiology or Medicine, 1997
  89. Richard E. Smalley, Chemistry, 1996
  90. Robert F. Curl Jr., Chemistry, 1996
  91. William Vickrey, born in Canada, Economics, 1996
  92. David M. Lee, Physics, 1996
  93. Douglas D. Osheroff, Physics, 1996
    1. Robert C. Richardson, Physics, 1996
    2. Mario J. Molina, born in Mexico, Chemistry, 1995
    3. F. Sherwood Rowland, Chemistry, 1995
    4. Robert Lucas, Jr., Economics, 1995
    5. Martin L. Perl, Physics, 1995
    6. Frederick Reines, Physics, 1995
    7. Edward B. Lewis, Physiology or Medicine, 1995
    8. Eric F. Wieschaus, Physiology or Medicine, 1995
  94. George Andrew Olah, born in Hungary, Chemistry, 1994
  95. John Charles Harsanyi, born in Hungary, Economics, 1994
  96. John Forbes Nash, Economics, 1994
  97. Clifford G. Shull, Physics, 1994
  98. Alfred G. Gilman, Physiology or Medicine, 1994
  99. Martin Rodbell, Physiology or Medicine, 1994
  100. Kary B. Mullis, Chemistry, 1993
  101. Robert W. Fogel, Economics, 1993
  102. Douglass C. North, Economics, 1993
  103. Toni Morrison, Literature, 1993
  104. Russell A. Hulse, Physics, 1993
  105. Joseph H. Taylor Jr., Physics, 1993
  106. Phillip A. Sharp, Physiology or Medicine, 1993
  107. Rudolph A. Marcus, born in Canada, Chemistry, 1992
  108. Gary S. Becker, Economics, 1992
    1. Edmond H. Fischer, born in China, Physiology or Medicine, 1992
  109. Edwin G. Krebs, Physiology or Medicine, 1992
  110. Elias James Corey, Chemistry, 1990
  111. Merton H. Miller, Economics, 1990
  112. William F. Sharpe, Economics, 1990
  113. Harry M. Markowitz, Economics, 1990
  114. Jerome I. Friedman, Physics, 1990
  115. Henry W. Kendall, Physics, 1990
  116. Joseph E. Murray, Physiology or Medicine, 1990
  117. E. Donnall Thomas, Physiology or Medicine, 1990
  118. Sidney Altman, born in Canada, Chemistry, 1989
  119. Thomas R. Cech, Chemistry, 1989
  120. Hans G. Dehmelt, born in Germany, Physics, 1989
  121. Norman F. Ramsey, Physics, 1989
  122. J. Michael Bishop, Physiology or Medicine, 1989
  123. Harold E. Varmus, Physiology or Medicine, 1989
  124. Leon M. Lederman, Physics, 1988
  125. Melvin Schwartz, Physics, 1988
  126. Jack Steinberger, born in Germany, Physics, 1988
  127. Gertrude B. Elion, Physiology or Medicine, 1988
  128. George H. Hitchings, Physiology or Medicine, 1988
  129. Charles J. Pedersen, born in Korea, Chemistry, 1987
  130. Donald J. Cram, Chemistry, 1987
  131. Robert M. Solow, Economics, 1987
  132. Joseph Brodsky, born in Russia, Literature, 1987
  133. Dudley R. Herschbach, Chemistry, 1986
  134. Yuan T. Lee, born in Taiwan, Chemistry, 1986
  135. James M. Buchanan, Economics, 1986
  136. Elie Wiesel, born in Romania, Peace, 1986
  137. Stanley Cohen, Physiology or Medicine, 1986
    1. Rita Levi-Montalcini, born in Italy, Physiology or Medicine, 1986
  138. Jerome Karle, Chemistry, 1985
  139. Herbert A. Hauptman, Chemistry, 1985
  140. Franco Modigliani, born in Italy, Economics, 1985
  141. Michael S. Brown, Physiology or Medicine, 1985
  142. Joseph L. Goldstein, Physiology or Medicine, 1985
  143. Bruce Merrifield, Chemistry, 1984
  144. Henry Taube, born in Canada, Chemistry, 1983
  145. Gerard Debreu, born in France, Economics, 1983
    1. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, born in India, Physics, 1983
  146. William A. Fowler, Physics, 1983
  147. Barbara McClintock, Physiology or Medicine, 1983
  148. George J. Stigler, Economics, 1982
  149. Kenneth G. Wilson, Physics, 1982
    1. Roald Hoffmann, born in then Poland, now Ukraine, Chemistry, 1981
  150. James Tobin, Economics, 1981
    1. Nicolaas Bloembergen, born in the Netherlands, Physics, 1981
  151. Arthur L. Schawlow, Physics, 1981
    1. David H. Hubel, born in Canada, Physiology or Medicine, 1981
  152. Roger W. Sperry, Physiology or Medicine, 1981
  153. Walter Gilbert, Chemistry, 1980
  154. Paul Berg, Chemistry, 1980
  155. Lawrence R. Klein, Economics, 1980
    1. Czesław Miłosz, born in then Russian Empire, now Lithuania, Literature, 1980
  156. James Cronin, Physics, 1980
  157. Val Fitch, Physics, 1980
    1. Baruj Benacerraf, born in Venezuela, Physiology or Medicine, 1980
  158. George D. Snell, Physiology or Medicine, 1980
  159. Herbert C. Brown, Chemistry, 1979
  160. Theodore Schultz, Economics, 1979
  161. Steven Weinberg, Physics, 1979
  162. Sheldon Glashow, Physics, 1979
    1. Allan M. Cormack, born in South Africa, Physiology or Medicine, 1979
  163. Herbert A. Simon, Economics, 1978
    1. Isaac Bashevis Singer, born in then Russian Empire, now Poland, Literature, 1978
  164. Robert Woodrow Wilson, Physics, 1978
  165. Arno Penzias, born in Germany, Physics, 1978
  166. Hamilton O. Smith, Physiology or Medicine, 1978
  167. Daniel Nathans, Physiology or Medicine, 1978
  168. Philip Anderson, Physics, 1977
  169. John H. van Vleck, Physics, 1977
    1. Roger Guillemin, born in France, Physiology or Medicine, 1977
    2. Andrzej W. Schally, born in then Poland, now Lithuania, Physiology or Medicine, 1977
  170. Rosalyn Yalow, Physiology or Medicine, 1977
  171. William Lipscomb, Chemistry, 1976
  172. Milton Friedman, Economics, 1976
  173. Saul Bellow, born in Canada, Literature, 1976
  174. Burton Richter, Physics, 1976
  175. Samuel C. C. Ting, Physics, 1976
  176. Baruch S. Blumberg, Physiology or Medicine, 1976
  177. Daniel Carleton Gajdusek, Physiology or Medicine, 1976
    1. Tjalling C. Koopmans, born in the Netherlands, Economics, 1975
  178. Ben R. Mottelson*, Physics, 1975
  179. James Rainwater, Physics, 1975
  180. David Baltimore, Physiology or Medicine, 1975
    1. Renato Dulbecco, born in Italy, Physiology or Medicine, 1975
  181. Howard Martin Temin, Physiology or Medicine, 1975
  182. Paul J. Flory, Chemistry, 1974
    1. George E. Palade, born in Romania, Physiology or Medicine, 1974
  183. Wassily Leontief, born in Germany, Economics, 1973
  184. Henry Kissinger, born in Germany, Peace, 1973
  185. Ivar Giaever, Norway, Physics, 1973
  186. Christian Anfinsen, Chemistry, 1972
  187. Stanford Moore, Chemistry, 1972
  188. William H. Stein, Chemistry, 1972
  189. Kenneth J. Arrow, Economics, 1972
  190. John Bardeen, Physics 1972
  191. Leon N. Cooper, Physics 1972
  192. Robert Schrieffer, Physics 1972
  193. Gerald Edelman, Physiology or Medicine, 1972
    1. Simon Kuznets, born in then Russia, now Belarus, Economics, 1971
  194. Earl W. Sutherland Jr., Physiology or Medicine, 1971
  195. Paul A. Samuelson, Economics, 1970
  196. Norman Borlaug, Peace, 1970
  197. Julius Axelrod, Physiology or Medicine, 1970
  198. Murray Gell-Mann, Physics, 1969
    1. Max Delbrück, born in Germany, Physiology or Medicine, 1969
  199. Alfred Hershey, Physiology or Medicine, 1969
    1. Salvador Luria, born in Italy, Physiology or Medicine, 1969
  200. Lars Onsager, born in Norway, Chemistry, 1968
  201. Luis Alvarez, Physics, 1968
  202. Robert W. Holley, Physiology or Medicine, 1968
    1. Har Gobind Khorana, born in India, Physiology or Medicine, 1968
    2. Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Physiology or Medicine, 1968
    3. Hans Bethe, born in then Germany, now France, Physics, 1967
  203. Haldan Keffer Hartline, Physiology or Medicine, 1967
  204. George Wald, Physiology or Medicine, 1967
  205. Robert S. Mulliken, Chemistry, 1966
    1. Charles B. Huggins, born in Canada, Physiology or Medicine, 1966
  206. Francis Peyton Rous, Physiology or Medicine, 1966
  207. Robert B. Woodward, Chemistry, 1965
  208. Richard P. Feynman, Physics, 1965
  209. Julian Schwinger, Physics, 1965
  210. Martin Luther King, Jr., Peace, 1964
  211. Charles H. Townes, Physics, 1964
    1. Konrad Bloch, born in then Germany, now Poland, Physiology or Medicine, 1964
    2. Maria Goeppert-Mayer, born in then Germany, now Poland, Physics, 1963
  212. Eugene Wigner, born in Hungary, Physics, 1963
  213. John Steinbeck, Literature, 1962
  214. Linus C. Pauling, Peace, 1962
  215. James D. Watson, Physiology or Medicine, 1962
  216. Melvin Calvin, Chemistry, 1961
  217. Robert Hofstadter, Physics, 1961
    1. Georg von Békésy, born in Hungary, Physiology or Medicine, 1961
  218. Willard F. Libby, Chemistry, 1960
  219. Donald A. Glaser, Physics, 1960
  220. Owen Chamberlain, Physics, 1959
  221. Emilio Segrč, born in Italy, Physics, 1959
  222. Arthur Kornberg, Physiology or Medicine, 1959
    1.  Severo Ochoa, born in Spain, Physiology or Medicine,    1959
  223. George Beadle, Physiology or Medicine, 1958
  224. Joshua Lederberg, Physiology or Medicine, 1958
  225. Edward Tatum, Physiology or Medicine, 1958
  226. Chen Ning Yang, born in China, Physics, 1957
  227. Tsung-Dao Lee, born in China, Physics, 1957
  228. William B. Shockley, Physics, 1956
  229. John Bardeen, Physics, 1956
  230. Walter H. Brattain, Physics, 1956
  231. Dickinson W. Richards, Physiology or Medicine, 1956
  232. André F. Cournand, France, Physiology or Medicine, 1956
  233. Vincent du Vigneaud, Chemistry, 1955
  234. Willis E. Lamb, Physics, 1955
  235. Polykarp Kusch, born in Germany, Physics, 1955
  236. Linus C. Pauling, Chemistry, 1954
  237. Ernest Hemingway, Literature, 1954
  238. John F. Enders, Physiology or Medicine, 1954
  239. Frederick C. Robbins, Physiology or Medicine, 1954
  240. Thomas H. Weller, Physiology or Medicine, 1954
  241. George C. Marshall, Peace, 1953
    1. Fritz Lipmann, born in then Germany, now Russia, Physiology or Medicine, 1953
  242. E. M. Purcell, Physics, 1952
  243. Felix Bloch, born in Switzerland, Physics, 1952
    1. Selman A. Waksman, born in then Russian Empire, now Ukraine, Physiology or Medicine, 1952
  244. Edwin M. McMillan, Chemistry, 1951
  245. Glenn Theodore Seaborg, Chemistry, 1951
  246. Ralph J. Bunche, Peace, 1950
  247. Philip S. Hench, Physiology or Medicine, 1950
  248. Edward C. Kendall, Physiology or Medicine, 1950
  249. William Giauque, born in Canada, Chemistry, 1949
  250. William Faulkner, Literature, 1949
  251. T. S. Eliot*, Literature, 1948
    1. American Friends Service Committee (The Quakers), Peace, 1947
  252. Carl Cori, born in Austria, Physiology or Medicine, 1947
  253. Gerty Cori, born in Austria, Physiology or Medicine, 1947
  254. Wendell M. Stanley, Chemistry, 1946
  255. James B. Sumner, Chemistry, 1946
  256. John H. Northrop, Chemistry, 1946
  257. Emily G. Balch, Peace, 1946
  258. John R. Mott, Peace, 1946
  259. Percy W. Bridgman, Physics, 1946
  260. Hermann J. Muller, Physiology or Medicine, 1946
  261. Cordell Hull, Peace, 1945
  262. Isidor Isaac Rabi, born in Austria, Physics, 1944
  263. Joseph Erlanger, Physiology or Medicine, 1944
  264. Herbert S. Gasser, Physiology or Medicine, 1944
    1. Otto Stern, born in then Germany, now Poland, Physics, 1943
  265. Edward A. Doisy, Physiology or Medicine, 1943
  266. Ernest Lawrence, Physics, 1939
  267. Pearl S. Buck, Literature, 1938
  268. Clinton Davisson, Physics, 1937
  269. Eugene O'Neill, Literature, 1936
  270. Carl Anderson, Physics, 1936
  271. Harold C. Urey, Chemistry, 1934
  272. George R. Minot, Physiology or Medicine, 1934
  273. William P. Murphy, Physiology or Medicine, 1934
  274. George H. Whipple, Physiology or Medicine, 1934
  275. Thomas H. Morgan, Physiology or Medicine, 1933
  276. Irving Langmuir, Chemistry, 1932
  277. Jane Addams, Peace, 1931
  278. Nicholas M. Butler, Peace, 1931
  279. Sinclair Lewis, Literature, 1930
  280. Frank B. Kellogg, Peace, 1929
  281. Arthur H. Compton, Physics, 1927
  282. Charles G. Dawes, Peace, 1925
  283. Robert A. Millikan, Physics, 1923
  284. Woodrow Wilson, Peace, 1919
  285. Theodore W. Richards, Chemistry, 1914
  286. Elihu Root, Peace, 1912
    1. Albert A. Michelson, born in then Germany, now Poland,   Physics,      1907
  287. Theodore Roosevelt, Peace, 1906

Vietnam

  1. Lę Đức Thọ, Peace, 1973 (declined)

See also

Following are 5 individuals who were Indian citizens at the time they were awarded:

Rabindranath Tagore 1913 (Literature)

C.V. Raman 1930 (Physics)

Mother Teresa 1979 (Peace)

Amartya Sen 1998 (Economic Studies)

Kailash Satyarthi 2014 (Peace)

H.G.Khorana, Dr.Subramanian Chandrashekar (son of elder brother of Sir C.V Raman-1983, Dr.Venkataraman Ramakrishnan-2009