Milestones in Molecular Biology:

 

Friedrich Miescher-1869 identified Nuclein from pus cells.

Feulgan 1927-28 demonstrated two types of Nucleic acids, i.e. DNA and RNA.

Frederick Grifith-1928 demonstrated genetic transformation principle.

 

Erwin Chargaff-1940, showed quantitative equivalence of total purine to total pyrimidines, i.e. A=T, G=C and A+T = G+C,

 

Oswald Avery, Colin McLeod and MacLean McCarty-1944, demonstrated experimentally that DNA as the genetic material, they used Pneumococcus virulence and nonvirulent strains.

 

Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase-1952, ultimate demonstration of DNA as the genetic material, using radioisotope labeled T2 phages.

 

James Watson and Francis Crick –1952-53, a crowning achievement in proposing a 3-D model of DNA, a double helix.  Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins provided x-ray diffraction data. Jerry Donahue an office mate of J.D.Watson provided the clue about the correct base tuatomeric states.

 

Beadle, Joshua Lederberg, Edward L.Tatum, 1958, for work on gene expression, in Neurospora, in medicine and Physiology.

 

Fredric Sanger, 1958, in chemistry for his work on primary structure of proteins; amino acid sequence of Insulin.

 

Korenberg; 1959, did in vitro synthesis of DNA using DNA polymerase, which is now called DNA polymerase-I.  Severo Ochoa did an excellent job on RNA polymerases; also he worked on in initiation of translation in eukaryotes.  Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology.

 

F.MacFarlane and Peter B. Medawar, 1960, for their excellent work on clonal selection theory of Antibody formation; Nobel Prize in Medicine and physiology.

 

Maramur Dotty-1961 conducted historical DNA-DNA and DNA-RNA hybridization experiments.

 

Melvin Calvin, 1961, Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on Biochemistry of carbon fixation,

 

Arbor –1962, showed evidence for restriction enzymes; Nathan and H.Smith showed that restriction enzymes cut DNA in sequence specific manner; Nobel Prize in chemistry.

 

F.C. Crick. J.D.Watson and M.H.F. Wilkins in 1962 awarded Nobel Prize in medicine and Physiology, for their work on 3-D structure of DNA.

John Ken drew, Max F.Perutz, 1962, for their great work on 3-D structure of globular proteins, awarded Nobel Prize in chemistry.

 

John C. Eccles, Alan L.Hodkin and Andrew F. Huxley, 1963, awarded Nobel Prize in medicine and Physiology for their work on ionic basis of nerve membrane potentials.

 

Dorothy L.Hodkin, 1964, awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work in structure of complex organic molecules.

 

Francois Jacob, Andre M. Lwoff, and Jacques Monad, 1965, awarded Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for their excellent work on bacterial operons, Lac-operon, and mRNAs.

 

Peyton Rous, 1966, for the discovery of Rous sarcoma virus, awarded Nobel Prize for this pioneering discovery of retroviruses.

 

Marshal Nierenberg, Severo Ochoa and Hargobind Khorana –1966, elucidated genetic code; H.G Khorana synthesized alanine tRNA, he also deciphered and decoded genetic code dictionary by filter based assays.

 

Gillert-1967, discovered DNA ligase.

 

H.Gobind Khorona, Marshal W.Nierenberg and Robert W.Holley, 1968, awarded Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, for their path breaking work in elucidating Genetic code and tRNA structure.  H.G Khorona elucidated the genetic code dictionary, by filter paper assays and also responsible for the synthesis of first gene in test tube.  M.W Nierenberg was the first to elucidate the meaning of the first codon UUU means Phenylalanine.  Robert W. Holley elucidated the structure of ala tRNA and proposed clover leaf model.

 

Max Delbruck, Alfred D.Hershey, Salvador E.Luria, 1969, awarded Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for their work on genetics and structure of viruses.

 

Bernard Katz, Ulf S Voneuler, 1970, awarded Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for their extraordinary work on Biochemistry of Nerve impulse propagation and transmission.

 

F.loir, 1970, awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for his work on the role of nucleotides in carbohydrate synthesis.

Earl. Sutherland, 1971, Nobel Prize in Medicine and physiology for their work on the mechanism of hormone action and cyclic AMP.

 

Gerald Edelman, Rodney R. porter, 1972, awarded Nobel Prize in medicine for their work on the structure of Immunoglobulins.

 

Christian B.Anfinsen, 1972, awarded Nobel Prize for his work on relationship between primary and tertiary structures of proteins.

 

Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, and George E. Palade 1974 awarded Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology, for their work on internal structure of cells.

 

Richard Dickerson-1974 did x-ray diffraction of synthesized oligos of CGCGAATTTCGCG for –B- DNA; GGCCGGCC, GGTATACC for A-DNA and CGCGCG sequences are used for Z-DNA.

 

David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard M.Timin, 1975, awarded Nobel Prize for their work on Reverse transcriptase and tumor causing viral activities.

 

Southern-1975, Southern developed Southern blotting technique.

 

Sanger & Barrel; and Maxam & Walter Gilbert- 1975-75, devised techniques for DNA sequencing.

 

D.Carleton Gajdusek, 1976, awarded Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for his work on Prion based diseases.

 

Boyer, Cohen and Paul Berg-1977-78, conducted DNA cloning experiments.

 

Werner Arber, Daniel Nathan and Hamilton Smith, 1978, awarded Nobel Prize for their work on restriction endonuclease technology.

Peter Mitchell, 1978, awarded Nobel Prize for his work on chemiosmotic mechanism in oxidative or photophosphorylation.

 

Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger, 1980, awarded Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work on Recombinant DNA technology, DNA sequencing.

 

Baruj Bennacerraf, Jean Dausset, and George D.Snell, 1980, Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, for their work on Major Histocompatibility complex.

 

Palmitter and Ralph Brienster –1981-82, produced transgenic mice with human growth hormone gene.

 

Aarton Klug, 1982, Nobel Prize in chemistry, for his work on structure of Nucleic acid and Protein complex.

 

Barbara McClintock, 1983, Nobel Prize in medicine and Physiology for her work on mobile elements in genome especially in corn plants, her work at that time was ahead of her times, a Botanist par excellence.

 

George Kohler, Cesar Milstein, and Neils K. Jerne, 1984, Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for their work on monoclonal antibodies.

 

Michael S. brown and Joseph L.Goldstein, 1985, Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for their work on regulation of cholesterol metabolism and endocytosis.

 

Mullis et al –1985, conducted first PCR experiments successfully.

 

Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen, 1986, Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for their work on neuronal growth factors.

Susumu Tonegawa, 1987, Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for the work on DNA rearrangement responsible for generating diverse antibodies.

 

Joahan Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel, 1988, Nobel Prize in chemistry, for their work on bacterial photosynthetic reaction center.

 

J. Michael Bishop, Harold Varmus, 1989, Nobel Prize chemistry, for their work on Oncogenes, that is cellular genes causing cancer or causing malignant transformation.

 

Thomas R. Czech, Sidney Altman, 1989, Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work on RNA as enzymes or work on Ribozymes.

 

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, 1991, Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for their work on measurement of ion flux by patch and clamp recording.

 

Edmond Fischer and Edwin Krebs, 1992, Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for their work on alteration of enzyme activity by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.

 

Karry Mullis and Michael Smith, 1993, Nobel Prize in chemistry for their pioneering work on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments and site directed mutagenesis (SDM).

 

Richer Roberts and Philip Sharp, 1993, Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for their work on split genes and RNA processing or RNA splicing.

 

Alfred Gilman and Martin Rodbell, 1994, Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for their work on structure and function of GTP-binding (G) proteins.

 

Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nusslein-Volhard and Eric Wieschaus, 1995, Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for their work on genetic control of embryonic development.

 

Jens C.Skou, Paul Boyer and John Walker, 1996, Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work Na+/K+- ATPase and the mechanism of ATP synthesis.

 

Rolf M. Zinkernagel and Peter C. Doherty, 1997, Nobel Prize for their work on recognition of viral infected cell by immune system.

 

Nobel Laureates from 1901 to 2005 – in the field of Physiology or Medicine [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/index.html]

 

2005 Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren

2004 Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck

2003 Paul C. Lauterbur, Sir Peter Mansfield

2002 Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston

2001 Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, Sir Paul Nurse

2000 Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel

1999 Günter Blobel

1998 Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad

1997 Stanley B. Prusiner

1996 Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel

1995 Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus

1994 Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell

1993 Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp

1992 Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs

1991 Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann

1990 Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas

1989 J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus

1988 Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings

1987 Susumu Tonegawa

1986 Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini

1985 Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein

1984 Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein

1983 Barbara McClintock

1982 Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane

1981 Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel

1980 Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. Snell

1979 Allan M. Cormack, Godfrey N. Hounsfield

1978 Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith

1977 Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow

1976 Baruch S. Blumberg, D. Carleton Gajdusek

1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard M. Temin

1974 Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George E. Palade

1973 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen

1972 Gerald M. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter

1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod

1969 Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador E. Luria

1968 Robert W. Holley, H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg

1967 Ragnar Granit, Haldan K. Hartline, George Wald

1966 Peyton Rous, Charles B. Huggins

1965 François Jacob, André Lwoff, Jacques Monod

1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen

1963 Sir John Eccles, Alan L. Hodgkin, Andrew F. Huxley

1962 Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins

1961 Georg von Békésy

1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Medawar

1959 Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg

1958 George Beadle, Edward Tatum, Joshua Lederberg

1957 Daniel Bovet

1956 André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards

1955 Hugo Theorell

1954 John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, Frederick C. Robbins

1953 Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann

1952 Selman A. Waksman

1951 Max Theiler

1950 Edward C. Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip S. Hench

1949 Walter Hess, Egas Moniz

1948 Paul Müller

1947 Carl Cori, Gerty Cori, Bernardo Houssay

1946 Hermann J. Muller

1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey

1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert S. Gasser

1943 Henrik Dam, Edward A. Doisy

1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1939 Gerhard Domagk

1938 Corneille Heymans

1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi

1936 Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi

1935 Hans Spemann

1934 George H. Whipple, George R. Minot, William P. Murphy

1933 Thomas H. Morgan

1932 Sir Charles Sherrington, Edgar Adrian

1931 Otto Warburg

1930 Karl Landsteiner

1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Hopkins

1928 Charles Nicolle

1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg

1926 Johannes Fibiger

1925 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1924 Willem Einthoven

1923 Frederick G. Banting, John Macleod

1922 Archibald V. Hill, Otto Meyerhof

1921 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1920 August Krogh

1919 Jules Bordet

1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1915 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1914 Robert Bárány

1913 Charles Richet

1912 Alexis Carrel

1911 Allvar Gullstrand

1910 Albrecht Kossel

1909 Theodor Kocher

1908 Ilya Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich

1907 Alphonse Laveran

1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal

1905 Robert Koch

1904 Ivan Pavlov

1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen

1902 Ronald Ross

1901 Emil von Behring

 

Nobel Prize in Chemistry – Laureates – 1901 – 2005 [http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/index.html]

 

2005 Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs, Richard R. Schrock

2004 Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose

2003 Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon

2002 John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka, Kurt Wüthrich

2001 William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori, K. Barry Sharpless

2000 Alan Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa

1999 Ahmed Zewail

1998 Walter Kohn, John Pople

1997 Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. Skou

1996 Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold Kroto, Richard E. Smalley

1995 Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland

1994 George A. Olah

1993 Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith

1992 Rudolph A. Marcus

1991 Richard R. Ernst

1990 Elias James Corey

1989 Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech

1988 Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel

1987 Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen

1986 Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, John C. Polanyi

1985 Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle

1984 Bruce Merrifield

1983 Henry Taube

1982 Aaron Klug

1981 Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann

1980 Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger

1979 Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig

1978 Peter Mitchell

1977 Ilya Prigogine

1976 William Lipscomb

1975 John Cornforth, Vladimir Prelog

1974 Paul J. Flory

1973 Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson

1972 Christian Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, William H. Stein

1971 Gerhard Herzberg

1970 Luis Leloir

1969 Derek Barton, Odd Hassel

1968 Lars Onsager

1967 Manfred Eigen, Ronald G.W. Norrish, George Porter

1966 Robert S. Mulliken

1965 Robert B. Woodward

1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

1963 Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta

1962 Max F. Perutz, John C. Kendrew

1961 Melvin Calvin

1960 Willard F. Libby

1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky

1958 Frederick Sanger

1957 Lord Todd

1956 Sir Cyril Hinshelwood, Nikolay Semenov

1955 Vincent du Vigneaud

1954 Linus Pauling

1953 Hermann Staudinger

1952 Archer J.P. Martin, Richard L.M. Synge

1951 Edwin M. McMillan, Glenn T. Seaborg

1950 Otto Diels, Kurt Alder

1949 William F. Giauque

1948 Arne Tiselius

1947 Sir Robert Robinson

1946 James B. Sumner, John H. Northrop, Wendell M. Stanley

1945 Artturi Virtanen

1944 Otto Hahn

1943 George de Hevesy

1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1939 Adolf Butenandt, Leopold Ruzicka

1938 Richard Kuhn

1937 Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer

1936 Peter Debye

1935 Frédéric Joliot, Irčne Joliot-Curie

1934 Harold C. Urey

1933 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1932 Irving Langmuir

1931 Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius

1930 Hans Fischer

1929 Arthur Harden, Hans von Euler-Chelpin

1928 Adolf Windaus

1927 Heinrich Wieland for

1926 The Svedberg

1925 Richard Zsigmondy

1924 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1923 Fritz Pregl

1922 Francis W. Aston

1921 Frederick Soddy

1920 Walther Nernst

1919 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1918 Fritz Haber

1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section

1915 Richard Willstätter

1914 Theodore W. Richards

1913 Alfred Werner

1912 Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier

1911 Marie Curie

1910 Otto Wallach

1909 Wilhelm Ostwald

1908 Ernest Rutherford

1907 Eduard Buchner

1906 Henri Moissan

1905 Adolf von Baeyer

1904 Sir William Ramsay

1903 Svante Arrhenius

1902 Emil Fischer

1901 Jacobus H. van 't Hoff